1. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). 2017. Pharmacological management of glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. SIGN 154. https://www.sign.ac.uk/sign-116-and-154-diabetes (Accessed: 15 August 2022)
  2. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. NICE NG28 Type 2 diabetes in adults: management (2022 update) https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng28 (Accessed: 15 August 2022)
  3. Davies, M.J., Aroda, V.R., Collins, B.S., Gabbay, R.A., Green, J., Maruthur, N.M., Rosas, S.E., Del Prato, S., Mathieu, C., Mingrone, G. and Rossing, P. Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, 2022. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetologia pp1-42 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-022-05787-2. (Accessed: 3 November 2022)
  4. The Scottish Government, Scottish Health Survey 2019. 2020. https://www.gov.scot/binaries/content/documents/govscot/publications/statistics/2020/09/scottish-health-survey-2019-volume-1-main-report/documents/scottish-health-survey-2019-edition-volume-1-main-report/scottish-health-survey-2019-edition-volume-1-main-report/govscot%3Adocument/scottish-health-survey-2019-edition-volume-1-main-report.pdf (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  5. The Scottish Government, Diabetes care - Diabetes improvement plan: commitments - 2021 to 2026. February 2021. https://www.gov.scot/publications/diabetes-improvement-plan-diabetes-care-scotland-commitments-2021-2026/pages/2/#:~:text=In%20our%20commitments%20from%202021%20%E2%80%93%202026%2C%20there,upskilling%20healthcare%20professionals%20remain%20key%20to%20optimising%20outcomes. (Accessed: 15 August 2022)
  6. The Scottish Government, A healthier future: Scotland's diet and healthy weight delivery plan. 2018. https://www.gov.scot/publications/healthier-future-scotlands-diet-healthy-weight-delivery-plan/ (Accessed: 15 August 2022)
  7. The Scottish Government, A Healthier Future: type 2 Diabetes prevention, early detection and intervention: framework. 2018. https://www.gov.scot/publications/healthier-future-framework-prevention-early-detection-early-intervention-type-2/pages/4/ (Accessed: 15 August 2022)
  8. The Scottish Government, Polypharmacy Guidance Realistic Prescribing, 3rd edition 2018. https://www.therapeutics.scot.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Polypharmacy-Guidance-2018.pdf (Accessed: 15 August 2022)
  9. Realistic Medicine – Shared decision making, reducing harm, waste and tackling unwarranted variation https://www.realisticmedicine.scot/ (Accessed: 15 August 2022)
  10. NHS Scotland, Scottish Diabetes Data Group. Scottish Diabetes Survey 2021. https://www.diabetesinscotland.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/Diabetes-Scottish-Diabetes-Survey-2021-final-version.pdf  (Accessed: 28 June 2023)
  11. Health and Social Care Alliance Scotland Diabetes: my information, my support, 2022. https://www.alliance-scotland.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/Diabetes-My-Information-My-Support-Report-August-2022.pdf (Accessed: 13 October 2022)
  12. Stedman, M., Lunt, M., Davies, M., Livingston, M., Duff, C., Fryer, A., Anderson, S.G., Gadsby, R., Gibson, M., Rayman, G. and Heald, A. 2020. Cost of hospital treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) compared to the non-diabetes population: a detailed economic evaluation. BMJ Open 10(5) e033231. Available at https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/bmjopen/10/5/e033231.full.pdf
  13. Department of Health and Social Care, Good for you, good for us, good for everybody. 2021. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1019475/good-for-you-good-for-us-good-for-everybody.pdf (Accessed: 15 August 2022)
  14. Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Sustainability Policy. 2021. https://www.rpharms.com/recognition/all-our-campaigns/policy-a-z/pharmacys-role-in-climate-action-and-sustainable-healthcare (Accessed: 15 August 2022)
  15. Royal College of General Practitioners Council Motion, Sustainable development, climate change and green issues. 2019. https://www.rcgp.org.uk/policy/rcgp-policy-areas/climate-change-sustainable-development-and-health (Accessed: 15 August 2022)
  16. CAN, H.C.I.P.C., Decarbonising Patient Care Pathways. Available at: https://a.storyblok.com/f/109506/x/88fe7ea368/smi-hstf-pcp-whitepaper.pdf
  17. Wilkinson, J.L., Boxall, A.B., Kolpin, D.W., Leung, K.M., Lai, R.W., Galbán-Malagón, C., Adell, A.D., Mondon, J., Metian, M., Marchant, R.A. and Bouzas-Monroy, A. 2022. Pharmaceutical pollution of the world’s rivers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 119(8) e2113947119. Available at: https://www.pnas.org/doi/epdf/10.1073/pnas.2113947119 (Accessed 4th May 2023)
  18. The Scottish Government. Chief Medical Officer for Scotland Annual Report 2020 - 2021 Recover, Restore, Renew. Available at https://www.gov.scot/binaries/content/documents/govscot/publications/corporate-report/2021/03/cmo-annual-report-2020-21/documents/chief-medical-officer-scotland-annual-report-2020-2021/chief-medical-officer-scotland-annual-report-2020-2021/govscot%3Adocument/chief-medical-officer-scotland-annual-report-2020-2021.pdf (Accessed 4th May 2023)
  19. Trautwein, C et al. Occurrence of the antidiabetic drug Metformin and its ultimate transformation product Guanylurea in several compartments of the aquatic cycle. Environment International 70(Sept) 2014 pp203-212. Available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160412014001512 (Accessed 1st June 2023)
  20. Ambrosio-Albuquerquev EP et al. Metformin environmental exposure: a systematic review. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 83(April) 2021 103588 Available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1382668921000077 (Accessed 1st June 2023)
  21. World Health Organization. 2008‎. The world health report 2008: primary health care now more than ever. World Health Organization https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43949/9789241563734_eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (Accessed: 15 August 2022)
  22. Barnett, K., Mercer, S.W., Norbury, M., Watt, G., Wyke, S. and Guthrie, B. 2012. Epidemiology of multimorbidity and implications for health care, research, and medical education: a cross-sectional study. The Lancet 380(9836) pp37-43. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22579043/ (Accessed: 15 August 2022)
  23. Ornstein, S.M., Nietert, P.J., Jenkins, R.G. and Litvin, C.B. 2013. The prevalence of chronic diseases and multimorbidity in primary care practice: a PPRNet report. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 26(5) pp518-524. https://www.jabfm.org/content/26/5/518 (Accessed: 15 August 2022)
  24. Boyd, C.M. and Fortin, M. 2010. Future of multimorbidity research: how should understanding of multimorbidity inform health system design? Public health reviews, 32(2) pp451-474 https://publichealthreviews.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1007/BF03391611 (Accessed: 15 August 2022)
  25. World Health Organization. 2003. Adherence to long-term therapies: evidence for action. World Health Organization https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/42682/9241545992.pdf (Accessed: 15 August 2022)
  26. Nguyen, T.L., Leguelinel-Blache, G., Kinowski, J.M., Roux-Marson, C., Rougier, M., Spence, J., Le Manach, Y. and Landais, P. 2017. Improving medication safety: development and impact of a multivariate model-based strategy to target high-risk patients. PLOS One 12(2) e0171995. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0171995 (Accessed: 15 August 2022)
  27. Picco, L., Achilla, E., Abdin, E., Chong, S.A., Vaingankar, J.A., McCrone, P., Chua, H.C., Heng, D., Magadi, H., Ng, L.L. and Prince, M. 2016. Economic burden of multimorbidity among older adults: impact on healthcare and societal costs. BMC Health Services Research 16(1) pp1-12.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4862090/  (Accessed: 16 August 2022)
  28. The Scottish Government, Person-centred Care: What Non-Executive Members Can Do. 2019. https://www.gov.scot/binaries/content/documents/govscot/publications/advice-and-guidance/2019/11/person-centred-care-non-executive-members/documents/person-centred-care-non-executive-members/person-centred-care-non-executive-members/govscot%3Adocument/person-centred-care-non-executive-members.pdf (Accessed: 16 August 2022)
  29. Health and Social Care Alliance Scotland, The House of Care Model https://www.alliance-scotland.org.uk/health-and-social-care-integration/house-of-care/house-of-care-model/ (Accessed: 16 August 2022)
  30. Stratton, I.M., Adler, A.I., Neil, H.A.W., Matthews, D.R., Manley, S.E., Cull, C.A., Hadden, D., Turner, R.C. and Holman, R.R. 2000. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. BMJ 321(7258) pp405-412 https://www.bmj.com/content/321/7258/405.full.pdf+html (Accessed: 16 August 2022)
  31. American Diabetes Association. 2021. 6. Glycemic targets: standards of medical care in diabetes—2021. Diabetes Care 44(Suppl 1) ppS73-S84. https://diabetesjournals.org/care/article/44/Supplement_1/S73/30909/6-Glycemic-Targets-Standards-of-Medical-Care-in (Accessed: 16 August 2022
  32. Knowler, W.C., 2002. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group: Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 346 pp393-403. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11832527/ (Accessed: 16 August 2022)
  33. Lean, M.E., Leslie, W.S., Barnes, A.C., Brosnahan, N., Thom, G., McCombie, L., Peters, C., Zhyzhneuskaya, S., Al-Mrabeh, A., Hollingsworth, K.G. and Rodrigues, A.M. 2018. Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): an open-label, cluster-randomised trial. The Lancet 391(10120) pp541-551. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)33102-1/fulltext (Accessed: 16 August 2022)
  34. Riddle, M.C., Cefalu, W.T., Evans, P.H., Gerstein, H.C., Nauck, M.A., Oh, W.K., Rothberg, A.E., le Roux, C.W., Rubino, F., Schauer, P. and Taylor, R. 2022. Consensus report: definition and interpretation of remission in type 2 diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 107(1) pp1-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8929179/ (Accessed: 16 August 2022)
  35. McCombie, L., Leslie, W., Taylor, R., Kennon, B., Sattar, N. and Lean, M.E. 2017. Beating type 2 diabetes into remission. BMJ 358. https://www.bmj.com/content/358/bmj.j4030 (Accessed: 16 August 2022)
  36. Holman, R.R., Paul, S.K., Bethel, M.A., Matthews, D.R. and Neil, H.A.W. 2008. 10-year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine 359(15) pp1577-1589. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa0806470 (Accessed: 16 August 2022)
  37. Maruthur, N.M., Tseng, E., Hutfless, S., Wilson, L.M., Suarez-Cuervo, C., Berger, Z., Chu, Y., Iyoha, E., Segal, J.B. and Bolen, S. 2016. Diabetes medications as monotherapy or metformin-based combination therapy for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine 164(11) pp740-751. https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/full/10.7326/M15-2650 (Accessed: 16 August 2022)
  38. Aroda, V.R., Edelstein, S.L., Goldberg, R.B., Knowler, W.C., Marcovina, S.M., Orchard, T.J., Bray, G.A., Schade, D.S., Temprosa, M.G., White, N.H. and Crandall, J.P. 2016. Long-term metformin use and vitamin B12 deficiency in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 101(4) pp1754-1761. https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/101/4/1754/2804585 (Accessed: 16 August 2022)
  39. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Joint Formulary Committee. British national formulary, Prescribing in renal impairment, 2022. https://bnf.nice.org.uk/medicines-guidance/prescribing-in-renal-impairment/ (Accessed: 16 August 2022)
  40. American Diabetes Association. 2021. 9. Pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2021. Diabetes care 44(Suppl 1) ppS111-S124. https://diabetesjournals.org/care/article/44/Supplement_1/S111/31020/9-Pharmacologic-Approaches-to-Glycemic-Treatment (Accessed: 16 August 2022)
  41. Sinclair A, Gallagher A. Managing frailty and associated comorbidities in older adults with diabetes: Position Statement on behalf of the Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD). 2019. https://abcd.care/sites/abcd.care/files/site_uploads/Resources/Position-Papers/ABCD-Position-Paper-Frailty.pdf (Accessed: 16 August 2022)
  42. Cosentino, F., Grant, P.J., Aboyans, V., Bailey, C.J., Ceriello, A., Delgado, V., Federici, M., Filippatos, G., Grobbee, D.E., Hansen, T.B. and Huikuri, H.V. 2020. 2019 ESC Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD: The Task Force for diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). European Heart Journal 41(2) pp255-323. https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/article/41/2/255/5556890 (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  43. Caparrotta, T.M., Blackbourn, L.A., McGurnaghan, S.J., Chalmers, J., Lindsay, R., McCrimmon, R., McKnight, J., Wild, S., Petrie, J.R., Philip, S. and McKeigue, P.M. 2020. Prescribing paradigm shift? Applying the 2019 European Society of Cardiology–led guidelines on diabetes, prediabetes, and cardiovascular disease to assess eligibility for sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors or glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists as first-line monotherapy (or Add-on to Metformin Monotherapy) in type 2 diabetes in Scotland. Diabetes Care 43(9) pp2034-2041
  44. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. NICE CG181 Cardiovascular disease: risk assessment and reduction, including lipid modification https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg181 (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  45. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. 2016. SGLT2 inhibitors: updated advice on the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. Drug Safety Update 9(9) p1. https://www.gov.uk/drug-safety-update/sglt2-inhibitors-updated-advice-on-the-risk-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis (Accessed: 8 December 2022)
  46. UK, G. 2020. SGLT2 inhibitors: monitor ketones in blood during treatment interruption for surgical procedures or acute serious medical illness. Drug Safety Update 13(8). https://www.gov.uk/drug-safety-update/sglt2-inhibitors-monitor-ketones-in-blood-during-treatment-interruption-for-surgical-procedures-or-acute-serious-medical-illness (Accessed: 8 December 2022)
  47. US Food and Drug Administration. 2020. FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA revises labels of SGLT2 inhibitors for diabetes to include warnings about too much acid in the blood and serious urinary tract infections. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-revises-labels-sglt2-inhibitors-diabetes-include-warnings-about-too-much-acid-blood-and-serious (Accessed 8 December 2022)
  48. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. NICE NG203. Chronic kidney disease: assessment and management, 2021. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng203/resources/chronic-kidney-disease-assessment-and-management-pdf-66143713055173 (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  49. Healthcare Improvement Scotland, Scottish Health Technologies Group, Advice Statement: Freestyle Libre® flash glucose monitoring 2018. https://shtg.scot/our-advice/freestyle-libre-flash-glucose-monitoring/ (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  50. Strain, W.D., Hope, S.V., Green, A., Kar, P., Valabhji, J. and Sinclair, A.J. 2018. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in older people: a brief statement of key principles of modern day management including the assessment of frailty. A national collaborative stakeholder initiative. Diabetic Medicine 35(7) pp838-845. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/dme.13644 (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  51. Rockwood, K., Song, X., MacKnight, C., Bergman, H., Hogan, D.B., McDowell, I. and Mitnitski, A. 2005. A global clinical measure of fitness and frailty in elderly people. CMAJ 173(5) pp489-495. https://www.dal.ca/sites/gmr/our-tools/clinical-frailty-scale.html (Accessed: 31 August 2022)
  52. Lunghi, C., Zongo, A., Moisan, J., Gregoire, J.P. and Guénette, L. 2017. The impact of incident depression on medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes & Metabolism 43(6) pp521-528. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1262363617304767 (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  53. De Groot, M., Anderson, R., Freedland, K.E., Clouse, R.E. and Lustman, P.J. 2001. Association of depression and diabetes complications: a meta-analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine 63(4) pp619-630. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11485116/ (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  54. NHS Scotland. Scottish Diabetes Group Short Life Working Group on Mental Health Screening in Diabetes. Available at: https://diabetespsychologymatters.files.wordpress.com/2022/04/sdg-swlg-mental-health-screening-and-associated-care-pathways-2022.pdf (Accessed 4th May 2023)
  55. Vancampfort, D., Correll, C.U., Galling, B., Probst, M., De Hert, M., Ward, P.B., Rosenbaum, S., Gaughran, F., Lally, J. and Stubbs, B. 2016. Diabetes mellitus in people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and large scale meta‐analysis. World Psychiatry 15(2) pp166-174. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/wps.20309 (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  56. Nielsen, R.E., Banner, J. and Jensen, S.E. 2021. Cardiovascular disease in patients with severe mental illness. Nature Reviews Cardiology 18(2) pp136-145. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41569-020-00463-7#Abs1 (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  57. Darwish, L., Beroncal, E., Sison, M.V. and Swardfager, W. 2018. Depression in people with type 2 diabetes: current perspectives. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: targets and therapy 11 p333. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6044353/ (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  58. Ducat, L., Rubenstein, A., Philipson, L.H. and Anderson, B.J. 2015. A review of the mental health issues of diabetes conference. Diabetes Care 38(2) pp333-338. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4302262/ (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  59. Holt, R.I. 2019. Association between antipsychotic medication use and diabetes. Current Diabetes Reports 19(10) pp1-10. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11892-019-1220-8 (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  60. Penninx, B.W. and Lange, S.M. 2022. Metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients: overview, mechanisms, and implications. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.31887/DCNS.2018.20.1/bpenninx (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  61. Reddy, P., Philpot, B., Ford, D. and Dunbar, J.A. 2010. Identification of depression in diabetes: the efficacy of PHQ-9 and HADS-D. British Journal of General Practice 60(575) e239-e245. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20529487/ (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  62. The Scottish Government, Mental Health in Scotland: Improving the Physical Health and Well Being of those Experiencing Mental Illness. 2006. https://www.gov.scot/publications/mental-health-scotland-improving-physical-health-well-being-those-experiencing-mental-illness/  (Accessed: 12 September 2022)
  63. Williamson, E.J., Walker, A.J., Bhaskaran, K., Bacon, S., Bates, C., Morton, C.E., Curtis, H.J., Mehrkar, A., Evans, D., Inglesby, P. and Cockburn, J. 2020. Factors associated with COVID-19-related death using OpenSAFELY. Nature 584(7821) pp430-436. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2521-4 (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  64. Goff, L.M. 2019. Ethnicity and type 2 diabetes in the UK. Diabetic Medicine 36(8) pp927-938. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/dme.13895 (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  65. Tillin, T., Hughes, A.D., Godsland, I.F., Whincup, P., Forouhi, N.G., Welsh, P., Sattar, N., McKeigue, P.M. and Chaturvedi, N. 2013. Insulin resistance and truncal obesity as important determinants of the greater incidence of diabetes in Indian Asians and African Caribbeans compared with Europeans: the Southall And Brent REvisited (SABRE) cohort. https://diabetesjournals.org/care/article/36/2/383/38145/Insulin-Resistance-and-Truncal-Obesity-as (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  66. Paul, S.K., Owusu Adjah, E.S., Samanta, M., Patel, K., Bellary, S., Hanif, W. and Khunti, K. 2017. Comparison of body mass index at diagnosis of diabetes in a multi‐ethnic population: A case‐control study with matched non‐diabetic controls. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 19(7) pp1014-1023. https://dom-pubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/dom.12915 (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  67. Zeh, P., Sandhu, H.K., Cannaby, A.M. and Sturt, J.A. 2014. Cultural barriers impeding ethnic minority groups from accessing effective diabetes care services: a systematic review of observational studies. Divers Equal Health Care 11(1) pp9-33. https://www.primescholars.com/articles/cultural-barriers-impeding-ethnic-minority-groups-from-accessing-effective-diabetes-care-services-a-systematic-review-of-94511.html (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  68. The Scottish Government, Trauma-Informed Practice: A Toolkit for Scotland, 2021. https://www.gov.scot/publications/trauma-informed-practice-toolkit-scotland/pages/4/ (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  69. The Scottish Government, Digital health and care strategy, 2021. https://www.gov.scot/publications/scotlands-digital-health-care-strategy/documents/ (Accessed: 18 August 2022)
  70. Scottish Government Effective Prescribing and Therapeutics Division and Public Health Scotland, 2023. National Therapeutic Indicators URL: https://scotland.shinyapps.io/nhs-prescribing-nti/ (Accessed 19 October 2023)