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Infant Feeding Difficulties Clinic (IFDC) & Paediatric Infant Feeding Allergy Clinic (IFAC) (Paediatric Guidelines)


Presentation of symptoms suggestive of gastro-oesophageal reflux (IFDC)

For symptoms suggestive of reflux:

  • Back arching/pulling up legs/extreme discomfort
  • Extreme crying for >3-4 hrs/day for at least a week
  • Oral aversion: refusing feeds or taking small amount
  • Poor sleep (i.e. difficult to settle, not keen to lay on back, crying out in pain)
  • Regurgitation & at least one of the above symptoms
  • Coughing/hiccupping/wheezing/hoarse

First line advice: to follow prior to referral:

  1. Breast fed: ensure a full breastfeeding assessment is carried out by an appropriately trained Health Care Professional , ensuring positioning and attachment has been assessed as effective
  2. Formula fed: ensure feeding is responsive: feed to around 150ml/kg/day (1oz = 28ml) & try small frequent feeds

If no improvement:

  1. Breast Fed: Start a two week trial of GavisconInfant or Cow & Gate Instant Carobel. For Carobel give as a paste before feeding 3 scoops to 2oz EBM 
    Formula Fed: Start a two week trial of Carobel as follows:
    Start at:  ½ scoop of carobel for every 90mls/3oz of feed. If there is no improvement, then increase to 1 scoop – 1 ½ scoops per 90ml/3oz of feed. See separate information sheet on carobel.
  2. If no improvement to symptoms: Refer immediately to IFDC. Consider commence dispersibleOmeprazole at 1mg/kg o.d (with minimum dose of 5mg). It is good practice to provide Omeprazole advice sheet Medicines for children
Formula Fed 
Breast Fed
Refer to the IFDC by emailing the IFDC/IFAC referral form to:

Refer to the Infant Feeding Adviser. Email address for referral:

Presentation of symptoms suggestive of Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) (IFAC)

For symptoms suggestive of CMPA:

  • Regurgitation with no signs of reflux
  • Loose stools +/- blood/mucus
  • Constipation
  • Discomfort after feeding
  • Painful wind
  • Skin rashes
  • Eczema/dry skin
  • Hives/swelling/immediate flare ups of eczema/rashes*
  1. Breastfed infantsrefer to specialist breastfeeding service via
  2. Formula fed: Commence 3 week trial of Extensively Hydrolysed Formula (e.g. Aptamil Pepti Syneo with Carobel (as above). Request 8 tins only on prescription and not for repeat script at this stage. AFTER 3 WKSRE-CHALLENGE back to standard formula*. Trial & re-challenge sheets are available from the dietitian.
  3. If symptoms resolve on EHF & reoccur on re-challenge: continue with EHF & immediately refer to IFAC via paediatric dietetics

*DO NOTRE-CHALLENGE:  if IgE mediated CMPA is suspected i.e. Hives/swelling/immediate flare ups of eczema /rashes. Start EHF and refer immediately to dietetics 

Formula fed
Breast fed

Refer to the IFAC by emailing the IFDC/IFAC referral form to:

Refer to the Infant Feeding Adviser. Email address for referral:


EHFExtensively hydrolysed
IFDCInfant Feeding Difficulties Clinic
IFACInfant Feeding Allergy Clinic

Last reviewed: 30/08/2021

Next review date: 30/08/2024

Author(s): Lead Paediatric Dietitian.

Version: 1

Reviewer name(s): Lead Paediatric Dietitian.

Document Id: TAM336